Facts", "Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary", "Prague Congress of Oppressed nations, Details that Austrian censor suppressed – Text of revolutionary proclamation", "Browse Hungary's detailed ethnographic map made for the Treaty of Trianon online", "Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995", The Hidden Europe: What Eastern Europeans Can Teach Us, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, and Analysis, "The Czechoslovak government policy and population exchange (A csehszlovák kormánypolitika és a lakosságcsere)", "Official Letter from Tom Lantos to Robert Fico", "U.S. lawmaker blames Slovak government for ethnically motivated attacks on Hungarians", "Kosovo's Actions Hearten a Hungarian Enclave", Ethnic map of Kingdom of Hungary without Croatia-Slavonia, "NATO Seen Favorably Across Member States", 1914-1918-online. Vertrag von Trianon . It was signed on June 4, 1920, at the Trianon Palace at Versailles, France . For example, the 1921 census in Czechoslovakia (only one year after the Treaty of Trianon) shows 21% Hungarians in Slovakia,[85] compared to 30% based on 1910 census. "The Trianon Peace Treaty in Hungarian Historiography and Political Thinking.". In base al censimento del 1910, il principale gruppo etnico del Regno di Ungheria era quello ungherese, che rappresentava approssimativamente il 48% dell'intera popolazione (calcolando la Croazia). The Treaty was signed in 1920 by the corresponding parties. The concession eroded support of the communist government among professional military officers and nationalists in the Hungarian Red Army; even the chief of the general staff Aurél Stromfeld, resigned his post in protest.[50]. Per sopprimere le aspirazioni magiare ed accerchiare l'Ungheria in tutti i sensi, i paesi beneficiari del trattato del Trianon (Regno di Romania, Regno di Jugoslavia, Cecoslovacchia) formarono la Piccola Intesa. The treaty was dictated by the Allies rather than negotiated, and the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. [69], The outcome of the Treaty of Trianon is to this day remembered in Hungary as the Trianon trauma. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia) The men of the Hungarian Red Army were recruited mainly from the volunteers of the Budapest proletariat. Hungary lost connection to strategic military and economic infrastructure due to the concentric layout of the railway and road network, which the borders bisected. The country also lost access to the Mediterranean and to the important sea port of Rijeka (Fiume), and became landlocked, which had a negative effect on sea trading and strategic naval operations. The truncated Kingdom had a population of 7.6 million, 36% compared to the pre-war kingdom's population of 20.9 million. In late May, after the Entente military representative demanded more territorial concessions from Hungary, Kun attempted to "fulfill" his promise to adhere to Hungary's historical borders. [12] In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours. After 1918, Hungary did not have access to the sea, which pre-war Hungary formerly had directly through the Rijeka coastline and indirectly through Croatia-Slavonia. Il numero di ungheresi in queste province, basato sul censimento del 1910 era: La popolazione ungherese in tutte queste regioni diminuì dopo il trattato, anche se minoranze ungheresi risiedono ancora oggi nei paesi limitrofi. Ad esempio rimasero circa 450-550.000 tedeschi (550.062 secondo il censimento del 1920, 477.153 secondo il censimento del 1930), 140.000 slovacchi (141.877 secondo il censimento del 1920, 104.786 secondo il censimento del 1939), e circa 45.000 serbi e croati (47.337 croati e 7.031 serbi secondo il censimento del 1930). Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la angla originalo estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj. Ufficio Centrale di Statistica, Mappa dei confini ungheresi nel novembre/dicembre 1918, Il Trattato del Trianon e lo scorporamento dell'Ungheria, Il Trattato del Trianon e le sue tragiche conseguenze, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trattato_del_Trianon&oldid=112504118, Accordi diplomatici della prima guerra mondiale, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Riassetto dell'Europa danubiana, con ampie cessioni territoriali a favore di, sempre in conformità al trattato di Saint-Germain, gran parte del. Some conditions of the Treaty were similar to those imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. A seguito del Trattato di Trianon, l'Ungheria perse i suoi territori più settentrionali. Digitized 19 June 2008 on 5 November 1918, the Serbian army, with the help of the French army, crossed southern borders. The Hungarian self-disarmament made the occupation of Hungary directly possible for the relatively small armies of Romania, the Franco-Serbian army and the armed forces of the newly established Czechoslovakia. ", Győri, Róbert, and Charles WJ Withers. [44] When the Republic of Councils in Hungary was established, it controlled only approximately 23 percent of the Hungary's historic territory. Trattato del Trianon translation in Italian-English dictionary. [107] The underlying reason for the decision was a secret pact between The Entente and Romania. Item notes: pt. All the formal districts of Austria-Hungary used to rely on each other's exports for growth and welfare; by contrast, 5 years after the treaty, traffic of goods between the countries dropped to less than 5% of its former value. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon. At the heart of the dispute lay fundamentally different views on the nature of the Hungarian presence in the disputed territories. G. Gratz and R. Schuller, Die Wirtschaftliche Zusammenbruch Oesterreich Ungarns (Vienna. The Great People's Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other Slavs from Banat, Bácska and Baranya declared union of this region with Serbia on 25 November 1918. ", Pastor, Peter. Terjemahan Trattato del Trianon ke dalam bahasa Inggris Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: The territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja (which included most of the pre-war Hungarian counties of Baranya, Bács-Bodrog, Torontál, and Temes) came under military control by the Kingdom of Serbia and political control by local South Slavs. Le condizioni militari furono simili a quelle imposte alla Germania dal trattato di Versailles (1919); l'esercito ungherese venne limitato a 35.000 uomini e dovette rinunciare alla coscrizione obbligatoria. The Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. El Tractat del Trianon, signat el 4 de juny de 1920, és la conclusió de l'assemblea celebrada al palau del Grand Trianon del castell de Versalles , per tal d'establir l'status d'Hongria després de la seva derrota a la I Guerra Mundial. According to the National Office for Refugees, the number of Hungarians who immigrated to Hungary from neighbouring countries was about 350,000 between 1918 and 1924.[93]. Le province che l'Ungheria perse con il trattato avrebbero avuto una popolazione in maggioranza non ungherese, ma anche delle significative minoranze ungheresi e territori con una maggioranza ungherese (Slovacchia del sud, parti della Transilvania e parti della Vojvodina). Under the terms of the armistice, Serbian and French troops advanced from the south, taking control of the Banat and Croatia. Representatives of small nations living in the former Austria-Hungary and active in the Congress of Oppressed Nations regarded the treaty of Trianon for being an act of historical righteousness[70] because a better future for their nations was "to be founded and durably assured on the firm basis of world democracy, real and sovereign government by the people, and a universal alliance of the nations vested with the authority of arbitration" while at the same time making a call for putting an end to "the existing unbearable domination of one nation over the other" and making it possible "for nations to organize their relations to each other on the basis of equal rights and free conventions". [62] This made it possible for Hungary to reach nearly the former Galician (Polish) border, thus separating the Czechoslovak and Romanian troops from each other. [124] Meanwhile, the territory of present-day Czech Republic (Kingdom of Bohemia) owned 75% of the whole industrial capacity of former Austria-Hungary. IV, 209. The Hungarian Red Army recruited men between 19–25 years of age. Kurzfassung: Der Friedensvertrag von Trianon regelte nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg die Bedingungen für Ungarn.Er ist einer der Pariser Vorortverträge, die den Krieg formal beendeten.. Ungarn wurde Ende 1919 nach Paris zu den Friedensverhandlungen eingeladen. [68] The intent of the Allies was principally to strengthen these successor states at the expense of Hungary. The option of partition along ethnic lines as an alternative was rejected.[102]. Εξετάστε τα παραδείγματα μετάφρασης του Trattato del Trianon σε προτάσεις, ακούστε την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική. The Kingdom of Hungary was the main supplier of wheat, rye, barley and other various goods in the empire and these comprised a large portion of the empire's exports. Rispetto al Regno di Ungheria (già facente parte dell'Impero austro-ungarico), i confini dell'Ungheria uscita dalla guerra non comprendevano: I confini definitivi vennero delineati dal trattato del Trianon nel 1920. In spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. This tendency, however, led to uniform economies and competitive economic advantage of long well-established industries and research fields evaporated. [18] Two alliances faced off, the Central Powers (led by Germany) and the Triple Entente (led by Britain, France and Russia). [42][43] The Hungarian Soviet Republic was a small communist rump state. [98][99][100] Areas with significant Hungarian populations included the Székely Land[101] in Eastern Transylvania, the area along the newly defined Romanian-Hungarian border (cities of Arad, Oradea), the area north of the newly defined Czechoslovakian–Hungarian border (Komárno, Csallóköz), southern parts of Subcarpathia and northern parts of Vojvodina. L'unica direzione geografica e politica aperta alla politica estera magiara rimase appunto l'Italia fascista, e l'Austria (quindi la Germania nazista dopo l'Anschluss). The Communists remained bitterly unpopular[45] in the Hungarian countryside, where the authority of that government was often nonexistent. This started by the First Vienna Award, then was continued with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1939 (annexation of the remainder of Carpathian Ruthenia and a small strip from eastern Slovakia), afterwards by the Second Vienna Award in 1940, and finally by the annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia. [6] Though the areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries had a majority of non-Hungarians, in them lived 3.3 million Hungarians – 31% – who were now in a minority status. By Domokos G. Kosáry, Steven Béla Várdy, Danubian Research Center ("Return everything!" There was also a division of labour present throughout the empire: that is, in the Austrian part of the Monarchy manufacturing industries were highly advanced, while in the Kingdom of Hungary an agroindustrial economy had emerged. Le minoranze ungheresi negli stati successori. Peter Hanák, "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." Ελέγξτε τις μεταφράσεις του "Trattato del Trianon" στα Ελληνικά. Vedere/scaricare le tariffe dei bungalow Bungalow in legno Trianon Capacità 4 Persone. English Otherwise, the Treaty of Trianon will come to represent for all of us something that is not good Il trattato del Trianon fu il trattato di pace con cui le potenze vincitrici della prima guerra mondiale stabilirono le sorti del Regno d'Ungheria in seguito alla dissoluzione dell' Impero austro-ungarico. T. Faltus, Povojnova hospodarska kriza v rokoch 1912–1923 v Ceskoslovensku [Postwar Depression in Czechoslovakia] (Bratislava, 1966). 4 June - Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Peace between the Allies and Hungary. Their views were disregarded by the Allied representatives. "The United States' Role in the Shaping of the Peace Treaty of Trianon. On 3 June, Romania was forced into further retreat but extended its line of defence along the Tisza River and reinforced its position with the 8th Division, which had been moving forward from Bukovina since 22 May. The census of 1910 classified the residents of the Kingdom of Hungary by their native languages[78] and religions, so it presents the preferred language of the individual, which may or may not correspond to the individual's ethnic identity. Furthermore, many trading routes that went through the newly defined borders from various parts of the pre-war kingdom were abandoned. (Thesis, University of Central Florida, 2006), Bihari, Peter. WikiMatrix WikiMatrix . [2][3][4][5] French diplomats played the major role in designing the treaty, with a mind to establishing French-led coalition of the newly formed nations. Despite a series of military victories against the Czechoslovak army, the Hungarian Red Army started to disintegrate due to tension between nationalists and communists during the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic. After these population movements, Hungary became a nearly ethnically homogeneous country. 4 giugno - Firma del trattato del Trianon tra l'Ungheria e gli Alleati. La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Treaty of Trianon article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2017-08-23 15:01:21. Alcuni articoli del trattato richiesero a tutte le parti contraenti di rispettare vari diritti delle minoranze nazionali presenti entro i suoi confini. There, between 25–30 May, Romanian forces were required to defend their position against Hungarian attacks. Most Hungarians preferred to maintain the territorial integrity of the pre-war kingdom. [63][66][67] The Allies assigned territories that were mostly populated by non-Hungarian ethnicities to successor states, but also allowed these states to absorb sizeable territories that were mainly inhabited by Hungarian-speaking populations. tratatul de la trianon Mihai Ghimpu, presedintele interimar al Republicii Moldova, a declarat ca tratatul privind regimul de frontiera semnat Romania si Moldova este ilegal si neconstitutional, informeaza adevarul.ro. Va comunque considerato il fatto che circa 3.000.000 di ungheresi vivono oggi fuori dai confini dell'odierna Ungheria (la popolazione dell'Ungheria è di 9,8 milioni). The de factotemporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. N. Layton and Ch. Many former Austro-Hungarian officers re-enlisted for patriotic reasons. Unterzeichnet am 4. [citation needed] Other important factors were the Hungarian migration from the neighbouring states to Hungary or to some western countries as well as decreased birth rate of Hungarian populations. [77] The population of the autonomous Croatia-Slavonia was mostly composed of Croats and Serbs (who together counted 87% of population). Adolf Hitler, applicando sino alle estreme conseguenze i principi nazionalisti, pianificò l'annessione alla Germania di tutti i territori fuori dai confini della madrepatria abitati da Tedeschi, e avviò a soluzione finale l'eliminazione degli Ebrei. [17] This caused a rapidly escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed quickly by the entry of most European powers into the First World War. As a consequence of the treaty, all the competitive industries of the former empire were compelled to close doors, as great capacity was met by negligible demand owing to economic barriers presented in the form of the newly defined borders. Thus, the resulting uneasiness and despondency of one part of the concerned population was later one of the main antecedents of World War II. A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948. The Hungarian political attitude towards Trianon was summed up in the phrases Nem, nem, soha! D'altra parte, la diversità etnica dell'Ungheria diminuì considerevolmente: il numero di persone di altra nazionalità entro le frontiere della nuova Ungheria dopo il trattato fu appena superiore al 10%. A cura della Lega per la revisione del Trattato di Trianon. Austria and Czechoslovakia subsidised the mill, sugar and brewing industries, while Hungary attempted to increase the efficiency of iron, steel, glass and chemical industries. The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. [20], On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war against Germany, and in December 1917 against Austria-Hungary. Dopo il 1918, l'Ungheria non ebbe più accesso al mare, che invece il Regno di Ungheria aveva avuto, attraverso i territori dell'odierna Croazia, per oltre 800 anni. "Hungarian and Soviet Efforts to Possess Ruthenia", Romsics, Ignác. With regard to the ethnic issues, the Western powers were aware of the problem posed by the presence of so many Hungarians (and Germans) living outside the new nation-states of Hungary and Austria. Schauen Sie sich Beispiele für Trattato dei XXIV articoli-Übersetzungen in Sätzen an, hören Sie sich die Aussprache an … The Treaty of Trianon (French: Traité de Trianon, Hungarian: Trianoni békeszerződés) was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference and was signed in the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles on 4 June 1920. [33] Military and political events changed rapidly and drastically thereafter: The Armistice of 3 November signed with Austria-Hungary was completed as regards Hungary on 13 November, when Károlyi signed the Armistice of Belgrade with the Allied nations, in order that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded. [109] In the Treaty of Bucharest (1916) Romania was promised Transylvania and some other territories to the east of river Tisza, provided that she attacked Austria-Hungary from the south-east, where defences were weak. - Sir Winston Churchill Watch the video now. "Hungarian Revisionism in Thought and Action, 1920–1941: Plans, Expectations, Reality" in Marina Cattaruzza ed., Várdy, Steven Béla. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, The Paris Peace Conference and its Consequences, Map of Hungarian borders in November–December 1918, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1922–1946), Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic, Treaties of the Third Republic of Hungary, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Treaty_of_Trianon&oldid=992756177, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946), Treaties of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), Treaties of the Portuguese First Republic, Treaties of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Treaties of the United Kingdom (1801–1922), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2,831,222 Romanians (53.8%). Hungarian troops prevailed and the Romanian Army retreated to its bridgehead at Tokaj. See/download bungalow rates Wooden bungalows Trianon Capacity 4 People. [63][64] This view did not prevail for long, as it was disregarded by the decisive French and British delegates. Il principio della riorganizzazione, su base etnica, della carta dell'Europa, accolto dal trattato in base ai Quattordici punti di Woodrow Wilson, paradossalmente - secondo lo storico britannico Eric Hobsbawm - fornì una giustificazione alle successive pulizie etniche e, addirittura, all'Olocausto degli Ebrei[2]. Many Czechoslovak troops, in fact, started working for the Allied Cause, and in September 1918, five Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army. p. 222. Hi prengueren part, a més del país interessat, les potències vencedores i llurs associats . Treaty of Trianon, and Protocol THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA, GREECE, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, and CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, [65] This opinion was not taken into account during the negotiations. [7][8][9][10] The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist. As a result, as many as a third of Hungarian language-speakers found themselves outside the borders of the post-Trianon Hungary.[97]. [35][36] It limited the size of the Hungarian army to six infantry and two cavalry divisions. Anna Menyhért, "The Image of the "Maimed Hungary" in 20th Century Cultural Memory and the 21st Century Consequences of an Unresolved Collective Trauma: The Impact of the Treaty of Trianon." The ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international border until the treaty. Ansonsten wird der Vertrag von Trianon für uns alle etwas symbolisieren, das nicht gut ist. The Hungarian "Conditions of Peace" were dated 15 January 1920, and their "Observations" handed in on 20 February. Il trattato fu ritenuto unilaterale e ingiusto anche dai contemporanei e secondo alcuni storici contribuì in modo significativo allo scoppio della Seconda guerra mondiale. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was one economic unit with autarkic characteristics[121][122] during its golden age and therefore achieved rapid growth, especially in the early 20th century when GNP grew by 1.76%. [26] He even organized covert contacts with British and French diplomats in Switzerland during the war. Despite promises for the restoration of the former borders of Hungary, the communists declared the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Republic in Prešov (Eperjes) on 16 June 1919. The Károlyi government failed to manage both domestic and military issues and lost popular support. [citation needed]. [130] These factors all combined created some imbalances in the now separated economic regions of the former Monarchy. In the end, this particular invitation was not issued. [112] The Hungarians did not see it this way because the newly defined borders did not fully respect territorial distribution of ethnic groups,[113] with areas where there were Hungarian majorities[113] outside the new borders. Cfr. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grande Trianon di Versailles, in Francia.Gli attori principali del trattato furono le potenze vincitrici, i loro alleati, e la parte sconfitta. [16], On 28 June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. The disseminating economic problems had been also noted in the Coolidge Report as a serious potential aftermath of the treaty. This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war Hungarian boundaries in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 were nearly identical to those of 1920 (with three villages – Horvátjárfalu, Oroszvár, and Dunacsún – transferred to Czechoslovakia). 1920. június 4. [65] According to some opinions, the Allies drafted the outline of the new frontiers[66] with little or no regard to the historical, cultural, ethnic, geographic, economic and strategic aspects of the region. Menyhért, Anna. By Edwin A. Pratt, The Rise of Rail-Power in War and Conquest, Role in the Weimar Republic's hyperinflation, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations, ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918, Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army, annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia, "Text of the Treaty, Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920", "East on the Danube: Hungary's Tragic Century", "AZ ŐRVIDÉKI (BURGENLANDI) MAGYARSÁG SORSA", http://adatbank.sk/lexikon/pozsonyi-hidfo/, "Trianon volt az utolsó csepp – A Magyar Királyság sorsa már jóval a békeszerződés aláírása előtt eldőlt", "Grand Trianon in Versailles Palace. The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. Come il generale francese Ferdinand Foch commentò: "Questa non è la pace, ma solo un armistizio per 20 anni"[1]. Published by C. Scribner's sons, 1937 Iván T. Berend and G. Ranki, Economic Development of East Central Europe (New York, 1974). [19] Irredentism—that is the demand for reunification of Hungarian peoples became a central theme of Hungarian politics and diplomacy. Le potenze vincitrici … Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 26 apr 2020 alle 21:56. Romanian forces were permitted to advance to the River Maros (Mureș). During the war, Károlyi led a small but very active pacifist anti-war maverick faction in the Hungarian parliament.

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