Nonprofit Organization . PDF Formatted 8.5 x all pages,EPub Reformatted especially for book readers, Mobi For Kindle which was converted from the EPub file, Word, The original source document.  The plane flew to the Canaries on 11 July, and Franco arrived in Morocco on 19 July.  Support for the Rivera regime gradually faded, and he resigned in January 1930.  However, the kidnapping and murder of Sotelo transformed the "limping conspiracy" into a revolt that could trigger a civil war.  In early July, despite the earlier loss at the Battle of Bilbao, the government launched a strong counter-offensive to the west of Madrid, focusing on Brunete. , During the first few months, both armies were joined in high numbers by volunteers, Nationalists by some 100,000 men and Republicans by some 120,000.  In June 1933, Pope Pius XI issued the encyclical Dilectissima Nobis, "On Oppression of the Church of Spain", raising his voice against the persecution of the Catholic Church in Spain. The argument that Mr Gil Robles tried to destroy the Constitution to establish fascism was, at once, hypocritical and false. , Joan Miró created El Segador (The Reaper), formally titled El campesino catalán en rebeldía (Catalan peasant in revolt), which spans some 18 feet by 12 feet and depicted a peasant brandishing a sickle in the air, to which Miró commented that "The sickle is not a communist symbol.  Hugh Thomas concludes that Condés intended to arrest Sotelo, and that Cuenca acted on his own initiative, although he acknowledges other sources dispute this finding. Condition: Buone Hardcover.  Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Workers increasingly demanded less work and more pay. La Guerra civila spagnola è vegnida manada en Spagna dal fanadur 1936 fin l’avrigl 1939 tranter la regenza elegida a moda democratica da la Segunda Republica spagnola (‹Republicans›) ed ils putschists da dretga sut general Francisco Franco (‹falangists›). Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. Media in category "People associated with the Spanish Civil War" The following 45 files are in this category, out of 45 total. On 5 September, the Nationalists closed the French border to the Republicans in the battle of Irún. They were chiefly defined by their anti-communism, which galvanised diverse or opposed movements like Falangists and monarchists. , The Spanish Civil War exposed political divisions across Europe. , The Nationalist side included the Carlists and Alfonsists, Spanish nationalists, the fascist Falange, and most conservatives and monarchist liberals. The Legion spearheaded many Nationalist victories, particularly in aerial combat, while Spain further provided a proving ground for German tank tactics.  In this respect, the war was an indicator of the growing instability across Europe. About 5,000 Spaniards died in the Mauthausen concentration camp. This tended to benefit younger officers starting their careers as they could, while older officers had familial commitments that made it harder for them to be deployed in North Africa. On March 5, 1939, Colonel Segismundo Casado led a military coup against the Republican government. Comments are disabled. , The League of Nations' reaction to the war was influenced by a fear of communism, and was insufficient to contain the massive importation of arms and other war resources by the fighting factions. Contemporary European History (2005): 171-191. Lotto 6123. (Oak Park, Illinois 1899- Ketchum, Idaho 1961) 17 luglio 1936 insurrezione militare in Marocco. PY - 2019/1/1. , Nationalist forces massacred civilians in Seville, where some 8,000 people were shot; 10,000 were killed in Cordoba; 6,000–12,000 were killed in Badajoz after more than one thousand of landowners and conservatives were killed by the revolutionaries. in the mid-1930s the Spanish GDP was 23% of the British one, 37% of the French one and 48% of the Italian one, see e.g.  The war has frequently been described by historians as the "prelude to" or the "opening round of" the Second World War, as part of an international battle against fascism. , Romanian volunteers were led by Ion Moța, deputy-leader of the Iron Guard ("Legion of the Archangel Michael"), whose group of Seven Legionaries visited Spain in December 1936 to ally their movement with the Nationalists. Ruiz, Julius. Home rule was granted to Catalonia, with a local parliament and a president of its own.  This revolution was opposed by the Soviet-supported communists who, perhaps surprisingly, campaigned against the loss of civil property rights. However, the end of the Civil War and later the Second World War saw the isolation of the country from most other nations until the 1950s, in which the American anti-Communist international policy favoured having a far-right and extremely anti-communist ally in Europe..  Until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was primarily based on agriculture.  Following the execution of its leader, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, by the Republicans, the party swelled in size to several hundred thousand members. Among the executions investigated was that of the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca, whose body has never been found.  However, while in the Nationalist zone the rising stock of money was only marginally above the production growth rate, in the Republican zone it by far exceeded dwindling production figures. Yale University Press, 2008, pp.110–111, Salvadó, Francisco J. Romero. Padiglione Esposizione di Parigi - Guerra civile spagnola. Britain and France led a political alliance of 27 nations that pledged non-intervention, including an embargo on all arms exports to Spain.  Luis Cuenca, a member of the arresting group and a Socialist who was known as the bodyguard of PSOE leader Indalecio Prieto, summarily executed Calvo Sotelo by shooting him in the back of the neck. ", On 1 August 1936, a pro-Republican rally of 20,000 people confronted Blum, demanding that he send aircraft to the Republicans, at the same time as right-wing politicians attacked Blum for supporting the Republic and being responsible for provoking Italian intervention on the side of Franco. The Spanish army had its own internal divisions and long-standing rifts. N/A.  After the fall of Guernica, the Republican government began to fight back with increasing effectiveness. Visualizzazione post con etichetta guerra civile spagnola. This process led many to exile or death. Get this from a library! Guerra civil española 1. 32–33.  As in the mid-1930s the Spanish GDP was much smaller than the Italian, French or British ones, and as in the Second Republic the annual defence and security budget was usually around $0,13bn (total annual governmental spendings were close to $0.65bn),[note 6] wartime military expenditures put huge strain on the Spanish economy. The number of civilian victims is still being discussed, with some estimating approximately 500,000 victims, while others go as high as 1,000,000. ", One of the rightists' principal motives was to confront the anti-clericalism of the Republican regime and to defend the Catholic Church, which had been targeted by opponents, including Republicans, who blamed the institution for the country's ills. The peninsulares resented seeing the africanistas rapidly leapfrog through the ranks, while the africanistas themselves were seen as swaggering and arrogant, further fuelling resentment. The Splintering of Spain, p. 54 CUP, 2005, Madariaga – Spain (1964) p.416 as cited in, Payne, Stanley G. The collapse of the Spanish republic, 1933–1936: Origins of the civil war.  However, Mola's program was vague and only a rough sketch, and there were disagreements among coupists about their vision for Spain. , The government retained control of Málaga, Jaén, and Almería.  Open violence occurred in the streets of Spanish cities, and militancy continued to increase, reflecting a movement towards radical upheaval, rather than peaceful democratic means as solutions. After the War, the Francoist regime initiated a repressive process against the losing side, a "cleansing" of sorts against anything or anyone associated with the Republic. This was also why the Republicans would kill priests or employers who were not considered to personally have done anything wrong but were nonetheless seen as representing the old oppressive order that needed to be destroyed. Asociación Cultural Memoria de España. Download premium images you can't get anywhere else. Molti vi combattono e dedicano opere alla vicenda: Hemingway, Orwell, Malraux, Koestler, Neruda, Machado, Mirò, Picasso: per tutti la Spagna resta un’esperienza indimenticabile. Therefore, he limited his aid, and instead encouraged Benito Mussolini to send in large Italian units. by Franca Pizzala.  The retreat from the Ebro all but determined the final outcome of the war.  Spain was devastated in many areas, with completely destroyed towns. Roughly 40,000 foreign nationals fought with the Brigades, though no more than 18,000 were in the conflict at any given time.  Gijón finally fell in late October in the Asturias Offensive. definition - Aerei_militari_della_guerra_civile_spagnola.  Italian warships took part in breaking the Republican navy's blockade of Nationalist-held Spanish Morocco and took part in naval bombardment of Republican-held Málaga, Valencia, and Barcelona. AU - Cardillo, Angelo. Neither side re-engineered the pre-war tax system; differences resulted from dramatic problems with tax collection in the Republican zone and from the course of the war, as more and more population was governed by the Nationalists. , The Republicans oversaw the evacuation of 30,000–35,000 children from their zone, starting with Basque areas, from which 20,000 were evacuated. Conversely, if the coup had risen everywhere in Spain on the 18th rather than be delayed, it could have triumphed by the 22nd. Quatro generales: Emilio Mola, Gozalo de Llano, Josè Enrique Varela e Francisco Franco. Nonprofit Organization. 3d sitorafia: wikipedia bibliografia: vedere la storia 3 GUERNICA Il 26 aprile 1937, Guernica venne bombardata e distrutta dall'aviazione della Germania nazista alleata con Francisco Franco. The first three months of the war were the bloodiest, with 50 to 70 percent of all executions carried out by Franco's regime, from 1936 to 1975, occurring during this period. , The Estado Novo regime of Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar played an important role in supplying Franco's forces with ammunition and logistical help.  The Nationalists won the war, which ended in early 1939, and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975. His only defect is probably his modesty. Además del millión o dos milliones de muertos, la salud del pueblo se ha visto minada por su secuela de hambre y enfermedades", Brennan, Gerald (1978). The Nationalists lacked access to seaports early on, so Salazar's Portugal helped them receive armaments shipments from abroad, including ordnance when certain Nationalist forces virtually ran out of ammunition. , The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to reconnect their territory in the Battle of the Ebro, from 24 July until 26 November, where Franco personally took command.  When Bilbao was conquered, thousands of people were sent to prison. "at least", Hitchcock, William L. (2008). , In the anarchist-controlled areas, Aragon and Catalonia, in addition to the temporary military success, there was a vast social revolution in which the workers and peasants collectivised land and industry and set up councils parallel to the paralyzed Republican government. The Spanish Civil War, Payne argues, was thus a far more clear-cut revolutionary and counter-revolutionary struggle between the left and right wings, while the Second World War initially had fascists and communist powers on the same side with the combined Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland. Notwithstanding religious matters, Basque nationalists, who were for the most part Catholic, generally sided with the Republicans, although the PNV, Basque nationalist party, was reported passing the plans of Bilbao defences to the Nationalists, in an attempt to reduce the duration and casualties of siege.  Azaña came close to resigning. Il comunismo è un'utopia. Freigegeben / keine Freigabe erforderlich.  The clandestine actions of the various European powers were, at the time, considered to be risking another world war, alarming antiwar elements across the world. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. How to engage your audience in any online presentation; Sept. 2, 2020. highest considered estimate, Tusell, Javier (1998). The Law of Municipal Boundaries forbade the hiring of workers from outside the locality of the owner's holdings.  General Goded surrendered in Barcelona and was later condemned to death. In Madrid, the rebels were hemmed into the Cuartel de la Montaña siege, which fell with considerable bloodshed.  The Spanish Republican Navy suffered from the same problems as the army—many officers had defected or been killed after trying to do so. 80 likes. A fresh and acclaimed account of the Spanish Civil War by the bestselling author of Stalingrad and The Fall Of Berlin 1945 Beevor's Ardennes 1944: The Battle of the Bulge is now available from Viking Books To mark the 70th anniversary of the Spanish Civil War's outbreak, Antony Beevor has written a completely updated and revised account of one of the most bitter and The Spanish civil war. Conservatives, the middle classes, businessmen and landowners became convinced that revolution had already begun. , Nationalists also murdered Catholic clerics. Ageod's Espana 1936. in 1934 the Spanish military spendings as reported by the statistical office were 958m ptas; in 1935 they were 1.065m ptas, Huerta Barajas Justo Alberto (2016). Amado Granell.jpg 295 × 446; 14 KB. In 1873, Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated due to increasing political pressure, and the short-lived First Spanish Republic was proclaimed. , On July 26, just eight days after the revolt had started, an international communist conference was held at Prague to arrange plans to help the Republican Government. N2 - Introduction. , In January 1938, Salazar appointed Pedro Teotónio Pereira as special liaison of the Portuguese government to Franco's government, where he achieved great prestige and influence. Upon their arrival two days later in Southampton, the children were sent to families all over England, with over 200 children accommodated in Wales.  Portugal was instrumental in providing the Nationalists with organizational skills and reassurance from the Iberian neighbour to Franco and his allies that no interference would hinder the supply traffic directed to the Nationalist cause. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic, and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Quick action by either the rebels or anarchist militias was often enough to decide the fate of a town. , On 7 March, Nationalists launched the Aragon Offensive, and by 14 April they had pushed through to the Mediterranean, cutting the Republican-held portion of Spain in two. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937.  Franco won another victory on 27 September when his troops relieved the siege of the Alcázar in Toledo, which had been held by a Nationalist garrison under Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte since the beginning of the rebellion, resisting thousands of Republican troops, who completely surrounded the isolated building. Franco was sacked as chief of staff and transferred to command of the Canary Islands.  The killings often contained a symbolic element, as those killed were seen as embodying an oppressive source of power and authority. Monetary resources on the Republican side were completely drained from weapon acquisition. Advertizing Wikipedia. Aj.  In February 1937, over 7,000 were killed after the capture of Málaga. 8 years ago. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by 22 February, but Franco was forced to rely heavily on German and Italian air support.  The new leadership began to unify central command in the republican zone. There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Click here to re-enable them. Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 80; the number of migrants usually quoted is 450,000, which refers only to these who crossed to France in the first months of 1939, López, Fernando Martínez (2010).  On 1 October 1936, General Franco was confirmed head of state and armies in Burgos. including war-related executions until 1961, death above average due to illness etc., Salas Larrazabal, Ramón (1977). 123. However, enough officers and soldiers had joined the coup to prevent it from being crushed swiftly. Labor Archives of Washington, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections. Select from premium Guerra Civile Spagnola of the highest quality. (2009). , While the Nationalists are often assumed to have drawn in the majority of military officers, this is a somewhat simplistic analysis. 1. Maddison Angus. It makes the reader is easy to know the meaning of the contentof this book. Zu viele Bilder ausgewählt. Storia della Guerra civile spagnola L. Chiodini.  Some members of the latter were executed by Soviet-advised communist functionaries in Catalonia, as recounted by George Orwell's description of the purges in Barcelona in 1937 in Homage to Catalonia, which followed a period of increasing tension between competing elements of the Catalan political scene. The leftist Revolution of 1936 that preceded the war was accompanied since the first months by an escalation of leftist anticlerical terror that, between July 18 and 31 alone, killed 839 religious, continuing during the month of August with 2055 other victims, including 10 bishops killed, that was 42% of the total number of registered victims in that year. MBC. The Condor Legion proved to be especially useful in the 1936 Battle of the Toledo. Thus they fared poorly in combat, particularly against the professional Army of Africa armed with modern weapons, ultimately contributing to Franco's rapid advance. 6 (2016): 965–988. The 1931 Constitution would be suspended, replaced by a new "constituent parliament" which would be chosen by a new politically purged electorate, who would vote on the issue of republic versus monarchy. 137,000 KIA, the rest victims of repression, Lauge Hansen, Hans (2013). Responsibility Ernestino Chiappa ; illustrazioni di Ernestino Chiappa ; revisione e coordinamento dell'opera a cura di Giuseppe Lundari. , The total number of Spaniards serving in the Republican forces was officially stated as 917,000; later scholarly work estimated the number as "well over 1 million men", though earlier studies claimed a Republican total of 1.75 million (including non-Spaniards).  Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874. [note 61] The "Execution" of the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Communist militiamen at Cerro de los Ángeles near Madrid, on 7 August 1936, was the most infamous of widespread desecration of religious property. Translation for 'guerra civile spagnola' in the free Italian-English dictionary and many other English translations. 600,000 killed during the war + 100,000 executed afterwards, Tucker, Spencer C. (2016).  Articles 24 and 26 of the 1931 constitution had banned the Society of Jesus.  The deaths would form the prevailing outside opinion of the republic up until the bombing of Guernica.. The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española) was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. , Many Americans volunteered and arrived in Spain in 1937. Yet as of early July the centrist and rightist opposition in Spain remained divided and impotent. Percorso storico sulla Guerra civile spagnola, analizzando le cause della guerra The Regular Spanish Air force commander Andrés García La Calle was openly critical of Malraux's military efficiency but recognised his usefulness as a propagandist. de FLAÇÀ.  However, Blum made clear that France reserved the right to provide aid should it wish to the Republic: "We could have delivered arms to the Spanish Government [Republicans], a legitimate government... We have not done so, in order not to give an excuse to those who would be tempted to send arms to the rebels [Nationalists]. Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union signed on officially, but ignored the embargo.  The rebellion was crushed in two weeks by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish colonial troops from Spanish Morocco. Indice. The government at the time was a coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña. Historians such as Helen Graham, Paul Preston, Antony Beevor, Gabriel Jackson and Hugh Thomas argue that the mass executions behind the Nationalist lines were organised and approved by the Nationalist rebel authorities, while the executions behind the Republican lines were the result of the breakdown of the Republican state and chaos: Though there was much wanton killing in rebel Spain, the idea of the limpieza, the "cleaning up", of the country from the evils which had overtaken it, was a disciplined policy of the new authorities and a part of their programme of regeneration.  In the Republican zone fiscal revenues in 1937 dropped to some 25% of revenues recorded in the proportional area in 1935, but recovered slightly in 1938. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. Create your lesson!  Just prior to the Battle of Ebro, Republicans achieved their all-time high, slightly above 800,000; yet Nationalists numbered 880,000. Whilst the Communists were forthright in their support of extrajudicial killings, much of the Republican side was appalled by the murders.  In dioceses where the Republicans had general control, a large proportion—often a majority—of secular priests were killed. However, the 500,000 death toll does not include deaths by malnutrition, hunger or diseases brought about by the war. 288–289; also Matthews 2010, p. 346. sfn error: no target: CITEREFThomas1987 (.  Landowners taunted workers by saying that if they went hungry, they should "Go eat Republic! , The armies kept growing.  About 145 men from Ireland formed the Connolly Column, which was immortalized by Irish folk musician Christy Moore in the song "Viva la Quinta Brigada".  With the onset of the Great Depression, the government tried to assist rural Spain by instituting an eight-hour day and redistributing land tenure to farm workers. Many general historiographic works—notably in Spain—refrain from advancing any figures; massive historical series, encyclopedias or dictionaries provide no numbers or at best propose vague general descriptions;[note 52] more detailed general history accounts produced by expert Spanish scholars often remain silent on the issue.  The Nationalists also frequently killed military officers who refused to support them in the early days of the coup. , Events in the period after November 1933, called the "black biennium", seemed to make a civil war more likely. Maria Inácia Rezola, "The Franco–Salazar Meetings: Foreign policy and Iberian relations during the Dictatorships (1942–1963)", sfn error: no target: CITEREFThomas2003 (. , Nazi Germany's actions included the formation of the multitasking Condor Legion, a unit composed of volunteers from the Luftwaffe and the German Army (Heer) from July 1936 to March 1939. Mappa concettuale con collegamento a storia, storia dell'arte e letteratura spagnola del '70 sulla guerra civile spagnola del 1936-1939 Included were sections of Latin American and Irish volunteers, organized as the Centuria Guttieras and the Connolly Column, respectively. Asociación Frente de Aragon. The Popular Front won the 1936 general election with a narrow victory. SALVADOR DALI' e PABLO PICASSO (Malaga, 1881- Mougins, 1973) CUBISMO Landowners were expropriated.  From August, both sides launched their own, similarly scaled conscription schemes, resulting in further massive growth of their armies. and covers all months of 1936 and 1939, excludes "homicidio" category (39,028 for 1936–1939), referred after Diez Nicolas (1985), p. 54, the number which emerges from the official statistics as provided during the early Francoist era and calculated later by. (2013). Motion pictures, posters, books, radio programs, and leaflets are a few examples of this media art that was so influential during the war. This led many workers to believe the Spanish Second Republic was just as oppressive as the monarchy, and the CNT announced its intention of overthrowing it via revolution. , Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on 3 June, in an airplane accident. , Pablo Picasso painted Guernica in 1937, taking inspiration from the bombing of Guernica, and in Leonardo da Vinci's Battle of Anghiari. They had little impact on the government, and could not shake the strong public mood for peace.  Julius Ruiz reports that the Nationalists killed 100,000 people during the war and executed at least 28,000 immediately after. Master these negotiation skills to succeed at work (and beyond) 215,000 in combat, 200,000 killed in rearguard, 70,000 due to wartime hardships, 11,000 civilian victims of military operations; the author later rounds up the total to 0,5m, Alonso Millán, Jesús (2015). Partecipa all'assemblea di Wikimedia Italia il 20 marzo a Pistoia.  This period also saw the worst actions of the so-called "Red" and "White Terrors" in Spain. 3 Answers. The Second Battle of the Corunna Road, a Nationalist offensive to the northwest, pushed Republican forces back, but failed to isolate Madrid. On 5 March 1939 the Republican army, led by the Colonel Segismundo Casado and the politician Julián Besteiro, rose against the prime minister Juan Negrín and formed the National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa or CND) to negotiate a peace deal. The Church opposed many of the Republicans' reforms, which were fortified by the Spanish Constitution of 1931. Some Chinese joined the Brigades; the majority of them eventually returned to China, but some went to prison or to French refugee camps, and a handful remained in Spain.  In total, Italy provided the Nationalists with 660 planes, 150 tanks, 800 artillery pieces, 10,000 machine guns, and 240,000 rifles. Prominent Spanish pacifists, such as Amparo Poch y Gascón and José Brocca, supported the Republicans. This film, The Spanish Earth, premiered in America in July 1937. , A few well-known people fought on the Republican side, such as English novelist George Orwell (who wrote Homage to Catalonia (1938), an account of his experiences in the war) and Canadian thoracic surgeon Norman Bethune, who developed a mobile blood-transfusion service for front-line operations. La guerra civile spagnola.  However, the Blum government provided aircraft to the Republicans covertly with Potez 540 bomber aircraft (nicknamed the "Flying Coffin" by Spanish Republican pilots), Dewoitine aircraft, and Loire 46 fighter aircraft being sent from 7 August 1936 to December of that year to Republican forces. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Vai a: Navigazione, cerca.  Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as the man who suppressed the Asturian miners' strike of 1934.
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